Wednesday, 18 January 2017

All about Jallikattu Controversy,Ban and Protest..

Source:"Bull's back" by Thaya nanth – Under Creative Commons license
Jallikattu also known as Eruthazhuvuthal or Manju virattu is a bull taming event practiced in Tamil Nadu,India as a part of Pongal celebrations on Maatu Pongal day.
How to participate?
During Jallikattu, a running bull is released into a crowd of people. Participants attempt to grab the bull's hump and ride it for as long as possible, attempting to bring the bull to a stop.
In some cases, participants must ride long enough to remove flags affixed to the bull's horns.

Bulls Fighting ClickBy: Habizabi Click  – Under Creative Commons license
Why and When is it performed?
Special rituals will be performed for this temple bull during important days. During the event, prizes are announced to encourage the youth to participate

What happens to the Bulls?
The untamable strong bulls are used for breeding the cows Thus wild nature of the bulls are inherited to its next generation, tamed weak bulls are used for domestic activities and agriculture.

When was it started?
Jallikattu has been known to be practiced during the Tamil classical period (400-100 BC). It was common among the ancient people Aayars who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country.

Is it really Cultural?
An inscription at Government museum in Tamil Nadu Bull taming was common among the ancient Aayar or Yadava people who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country.Later, it became a platform for display of bravery and prize money was introduced for participation encouragement. A seal from the Indus Valley Civilization depicting the practice is preserved in the National Museum, New Delhi.A cave painting in white kaolin discovered near Madurai depicting a lone man trying to control a bull is estimated to be about 2,500 years old.

What are the Benefits of Jallikattu?

Bulls that are able to participate successfully in the event are used as studs for breeding. This practice ensures that only the strongest and most virile bulls are used for breeding, thus effectively making the offspring of such bulls stronger, less susceptible to diseases and able to produce higher quality milk.
Jallikattu is the traditional and only practical way by which farmers are able to preserve the genetic strength and traits of the indigenous cattle breeds.

Jallikattu also serves a secondary purpose of providing farmers to hold onto their bulls. The bulls which are able to perform well in Jallikattu fetch higher prices in the markets, making the engagement of bulls in Jallikattu a valuable activity to farmers. Thereby the population of bulls, which apart from being used as studs and in events such as Jallikattu serve no real purpose, are preserved.
The calves, once they reach adolescence are taken to small events to familiarize them with the atmosphere and specific training is given based on the variant of the event it is meant for.In general, bulls are trained to not allow strangers to come near them.

Important events and timelines over the Controversy, Ban and Protest:
Protests against Jallikattu started since 2004:
  • Federation of India Animal Protection Agencies(FIAPO),People for Ethical Treatment of Animals(PETA) protested againist it from 2004
  • The Animal Welfare Board of India filed a case in the Supreme Court of India for an outright ban on Jallikattu because of the cruelty to animals and the threat to public safety involved.
  • The Animal Welfare Board of India filed a case in the Supreme Court of India for an outright ban on Jallikattu because of the cruelty to animals and the threat to public safety involved.
In the year 2010:
  • The Supreme Court permitted the Government of Tamil Nadu to allow Jallikattu for five months in a year and directed the District Collectors to make sure that the animals that participate in Jallikattu are registered to the Animal Welfare Board and in return the Board would send its representative to monitor over the event.
  • The Government of Tamil Nadu ordered that ₹2 lakh (US$3,000) be deposited by the organizers in case of an accident or injury during the event and enacted a rule to allow a team of veterinarians be present at the venue for certifying the bulls for participation in the event and to provide treatment for bulls that get injured.
In the year 2011:
  • The Ministry of Environment and Forests issued a notification  that banned the use of bulls as performing animals, thereby banning the event.But the practice continued to be held under Tamil Nadu Regulation of Jallikattu Act No 27 of 2009.
In the Year 2014:
  • On 7 May 2014, The Supreme Court banned jallikattu,noted that any flouting of the ban should result in penalties for cruelty to animals under The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
  • The court also asked the Government of India to amend the law on preventing cruelty to animals to bring bulls within its ambit. 
  • The Supreme Court also ruled that cruelty is inherent in these events, as bulls are not anatomically suited for such activities and making them participate is subjecting them to unnecessary pain and suffering, so such events were outlawed.
In the Year 2016:
  • On 8 January 2016, the Ministry of Environment and Forests permitted the continuation of the tradition under certain conditions,however that was overturned by the Supreme Court on 26 July 2016.
  • On 2016, the World Youth Organization on 16 January 2016 at Chennai protested against the stay on ban on conducting Jallikattu in Tamil Nadu. 
  • After hearing the petitions which were led by the Animal Welfare Board of India challenging central government's notification, the Supreme Court of India on 12 January 2016 ordered a stay, issued notices to the central government and TN Government and later refused to lift the stay.Though Numerous Jallikattu events were held across Tamil Nadu in protest of the ban, and hundreds of participants were detained by police in response.
Its been contiunuing in 2017..
  • On 8 January 2017, students and youngsters from Tamil Nadu gathered at Chennai Marina and conducted a rally opposing the ban of Jallikattu.
  • The participants walked from the lighthouse to labour statue bearing posters saying ‘save Jallikattu'.
  • It is reported that there were 20,000 participants in the rally, which was organized by a group of non-political and youth organizations.Following the protests at Chennai, many students started rallies in various towns of Tamil Nadu.
  • On January 18, 2017 Tamil Nadu CM urges youth to give up protest on Jallikattu, decided to meet PM Modi on January 19th, 2017.
  • On January 19,2017 Tamil Nadu CM Panneerselvam met PM Modi over the Ordinance concerning jallikattu, While PM Modi expressed his inability to help as the case is still pending in the court, he assured full support for a state initiated ordinance.
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